The distinction between an AC and a DC motor is critical for examination purposes and numerous projects and demonstrations. Knowing the differences between AC and DC motors makes selecting the proper one for a presentation much easier. This topic is also crucial for engineering students. This article presents the exact differences between DC and AC motors in tabular form for easier understanding.
It is necessary to understand the intricacies of an electric motor before learning the differences between DC and AC motors. Knowing the specifics of an electric motor allows one to grasp the distinctions and connect the dots quickly.
What is Electric Motor
The electric motor is an electromechanical device that transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy. To put it another way, the motor refers to the mechanisms that generate rotating force. The relationship between magnetic and electric fields is critical to the electric motor’s operation. There are two basic types of electric motors. The two types of motors are AC and DC. The AC motor is powered by alternating current, while the DC motor is powered by direct current.
What Is An AC Motor?
An alternating current motor (AC motor) is an electric motor that works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. This electric motor is run on alternating current. It’s a form of electric current that regularly changes its magnitude and direction. Direct current, or ‘DC,’ on the other hand, flows in only one way. An AC motor can produce mechanical energy from a simple electrical input signal compared to a DC motor.
An AC motor’s two most essential components are a stator and a rotor. The stator, or stationary element of the motor, remains outside. It has coils and is powered by an alternating current to produce a spinning magnetic field. The rotor, which is the motor’s revolving portion, remains within. By being linked to the output shaft, it creates a second revolving magnetic field. The rotor magnetic field can be made by reluctance saliency, permanent magnets, or electrical winding.
We need to know the key characteristics of an AC motor to comprehend how it functions fully. Many other motors, particularly DC motors, are separate from AC motors. However, the fact that it operates on alternating currents is the leading cause. The flow direction around a circuit is reversed at regular intervals in an alternating current or charge. It also indicates that the voltage on an AC circuit fluctuates regularly, whereas the voltage on a DC circuit is relatively stable.
The AC motor now uses an alternator to achieve this alternating charge direction. It’s an electrical generator that’s only used in certain situations. When energy is transferred through the rotor of a spinning shaft, an electromagnetic field is produced in the generator.
The stator rotates around itself or within a collection of static wire coils. When the rotor rotates about the stator, the generated EMF changes direction or polarity at specific points.
What is a DC Motor?
A direct current motor (DC motor) is an electric motor that runs on a direct current. An electric motor’s operation is based on simple electromagnetism. When a conductor carrying any current is put in an external magnetic field, it will face a force that is proportional to the current in the conductor and the strength of the external magnetic field. It’s a device that converts electrical into mechanical energy. It is based on the fact that when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it is subjected to a force that causes it to rotate in relation to its initial location. Field windings supply magnetic flux, and the armature serves as the conductor in a practical DC motor.
A brushless DC motor receives current or voltage as an input and produces torque as an output. A DC motor is made up of two primary components. The rotor is the revolving component, and the stator is the stationary component. In relation to the stator, the rotor revolves.
The rotor is made up of electrically connected windings to the commutator. When power is provided, the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotor windings are designed so that the polarities of the stator magnets and the energized winding are mismatched, causing the rotor to move until it is almost straightened with the stator’s field magnets.
The brushes energize the next winding and advance to the next commutator contacts as the rotor finds alignment. The revolution causes a reversal of current through the rotor winding, which causes the rotor’s magnetic field to flip, causing it to rotate.
AC Motor vs DC Motor: What’s The Difference?
While both AC and DC motors generate mechanical energy via a revolving motor shaft, there are a few significant differences:
AC motors are powered by an alternating current and voltage input signal that changes direction and amplitude as it completes a cycle. AC motors can be driven by a single-phase or polyphase power source with several voltage inputs operating at different phase angles.
DC motors are driven by a DC power source that delivers a unidirectional current. Because AC power is so prevalent, converting to DC power, such as via a DC power supply or an AC-DC converter, may be necessary when using a DC motor.
Direct vs Indirect Connection Design
To spin the rotor in an AC motor, all required is to energize the stator coils via a direct connection to a polyphase AC power supply. The current in the rotor is generated through the principle of electromagnetic induction, which does not require a direct electrical connection.
Unless a permanent magnet is utilized, electricity must be provided to the static field coils and the armature in a DC motor. Brush-type DC motors accomplish this by using a set of spring-loaded carbon brushes that press on a commutator ring as the armature spins, carrying current to the armature coils and field coils. The resulting DC motor arrangement will display varied performance characteristics depending on whether the field coil is connected in series with the armature coil or parallel with the armature coil.
Brushes and a commutator have several effects on the functioning of DC motors:
- Brushes wear out owing to mechanical friction, necessitating maintenance and brush replacement, which impacts motor placement due to the need for accessibility.
- Brush contact with the commutator can create sparks and arcing, causing pitting and damage to the commutator. It can also be an ignition source, a worry when flammable vapours or gases are present in some settings.
- Brush friction reduces the efficiency of DC motors because some of the input energy is lost in friction rather than being used to generate motion.
- Brushed DC motors produce more noise and dust as the brush, commonly made of carbon or graphite, wears down.
The input frequency of the alternating current provided to the stator coils controls the speed of an AC motor, and the speed is directly proportional. The motor’s speed rises in tandem with the frequency. VFD controllers change the input frequency to create the required motor rpm.
The current plus the voltage applied to the windings, armature coils or the current flowing through the field coils, are used to control the speed of DC motors (As a result, the magnetic field strength for the field coil is affected). Again, the relationship between speed and current is proportionate.
Self-starting polyphase AC motors require no additional electronics other than a variable frequency controller for speed control. Single-phase AC and DC motors need a mechanism to control start-up conditions. The back EMF produced in the armature of large DC motors, for example, is proportional to the armature’s speed and thus small at start-up. This condition can result in a lot of current flowing through the armature, leading to burnout. As a result, these motors require control of the input voltage ramp-up at start-up.
AC motors are popular because of their variable torque and high speed, yet torque decreases typically as the motor speed rises. DC motors provide a high torque output and are useful when speed control is required. DC motors may deliver more consistent torque over a wider speed range and respond to load changes more quickly than AC motors.
Depending on the coil connection topology, different performances for DC motors can be obtained. Series motors have more starting torque, but a steeper speed drop-off as the load grows. Parallel or shunt DC motors have a lower beginning torque but load relationship vs. a flatter speed, allowing them to maintain a steady speed practically regardless of the load.
Due to the induction power loss and the slip discussed above, AC motors have inefficiency difficulties. Permanent magnetism DC motors can be up to 30% more efficient than DC motors that use electromagnets because they don’t need to invest any electricity in manufacturing them.
However, there is some efficiency loss due to brush friction. Brushless DC motors are more effective than brushless DC motors, although the advantages are concentrated in the low-load and no-load sections of the performance curve.
AC motors are typically larger than DC motors for a given amount of mechanical work output, with brushless DC types being the smallest. AC motors can service you for long, whereas DC motors, especially those with commutators and brushes, require greater maintenance due to mechanical tear and wear. Electronically Commutated Motors (ECMs) are brushless DC motor types that replaces mechanical commutation and brushes with control and electronic commutation, lower power consumption, resulting in increased usable life, cooler operation, and improved performance.
AC Motor Vs DC Motor
AC Motor and Its Mechanism
A hoop of electromagnets is formed across the outside of an AC motor. Which may be made to generate a revolving magnetic field? A wire loop, a solid metal axle, a squirrel cage consisting of metal bars, a coil, and interconnections are all found inside the stator. Other freely moving metal pieces that can carry electricity are also present.
The rotor acts as an electrical conductor because it is suspended within the magnetic field. The magnetic field is continually changing due to its revolution. The magnetic field inside the rotor causes an electric current. The current runs in a loop around the conductor if it is a ring or a wire. Eddy currents whirl around the conductor as if it is just a solid piece of metal.
In any case, the induced current generates its magnetic field, which, according to another electromagnetic law (Lenz’s law), tries to stop whatever is causing the revolving magnetic field by rotating. AC motors are an excellent way to get mechanical power from a simple electrical signal.
DC Motor and Its Mechanism
These motors are made from a rectangular loop of wire. This loop is suspended between both the magnet’s poles. When a wire is connected to a battery, direct current (DC) flows through it, creating a temporary magnetic field everywhere around it. The initial field from the permanent magnet repels this quick field, forcing the wire to flip over.
Usually, the wire would come to a halt there before reversing direction. The current can be reversed every time the wire flips over if a clever revolving connection (known as a commutator) is employed. As long as the current flows, the wire will continue to rotate in the same direction. Michael Faraday devised the basic concept for this small DC electric motor in the 1820s, and William Sturgeon transformed it into a working device a decade later.
DC motors are widely used in applications where the speed must be controlled externally. AC motors are more efficient in applications where power efficiency is needed for longer. AC motors can be single or three phases; however, DC motors are only single phases.
In some cases, DC motors are replaced with an AC motor coupled to an electronic speed controller. Variable frequency drives are the name for this coupled system (VFD). DC motors have many moving components that are expensive to replace and are more costly to fix than an AC motor with an electronic controller.
For more details or purchase of AC and DC motors, contact us at ICRFQ. We are the best electrical component manufacturers in China.
If you want to find more Electronic Components Distributors, please check out the following articles: