ATXMEGA16A4U-AU

ATXMEGA16A4U-AU

Part Number: ATXMEGA16A4U-AU

Manufacturer: Microchip Technology

Description: 8-bit Microcontrollers – MCU AVR8 16KB FLSH 2KB

Shipped from: Shenzhen/HK Warehouse

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Technical Specifications of ATXMEGA16A4U-AU

Datasheet  ATXMEGA16A4U-AU datasheet
Category Integrated Circuits (ICs)
Family Embedded – Microcontrollers
Manufacturer Atmel
Series AVR? XMEGA? A4U
Packaging Tray
Part Status Active
Core Processor AVR
Core Size 8/16-Bit
Speed 32MHz
Connectivity I2C, IrDA, SPI, UART/USART, USB
Peripherals Brown-out Detect/Reset, DMA, POR, PWM, WDT
Number of I/O 34
Program Memory Size 16KB (8K x 16)
Program Memory Type FLASH
EEPROM Size 1K x 8
RAM Size 2K x 8
Voltage – Supply (Vcc/Vdd) 1.6 V ~ 3.6 V
Data Converters A/D 12x12b, D/A 2x12b
Oscillator Type Internal
Operating Temperature -40°C ~ 85°C (TA)
Package / Case 44-TQFP
Supplier Device Package 44-TQFP (10×10)

ATXMEGA16A4U-AU Overview

Atmel’s AVR XMEGA line of 8/16-bit microcontrollers, based on the AVR-enhanced RISC architecture, are efficient power consumers and come with a wide variety of peripherals. The AVR XMEGA devices enable system designers to balance power consumption and processing speed by carrying out commands in a single clock cycle. As a result, CPU throughput is close to 1 million instructions per second per megahertz. The AVR central processor (CPU) features a large instruction set and 32 general-purpose working registers.

Features Descriptions

Due to direct access to the ALU from all 32 registers, two different registers can be accessed in a single instruction that takes one clock cycle to complete. The resulting design performs better throughput and code efficiency than conventional single-accumulator or CISC-based microcontrollers. AVR XMEGA A4U devices provide the following capabilities: internal programmable flash, erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), static random access memory (SRAM), four-channel direct memory access (DMA) controller, eight-channel event system, programmable multilevel interrupt controller, five flexible, 16-bit timer/counters with compare and PWM channels, five USARTs, and The program and debug interface is a quick, two-pin interface for programming and debugging (PDI).

The software for ATx devices offers five alternative power-saving modes. The SRAM, interrupt controller, event system, and all other peripherals continue to function normally while the CPU is idle. The contents of SRAM and registers are kept intact, but all additional functionality is disabled until the following TWI, USB resumption, pin-change interrupt, or reset. The asynchronous real-time counter allows the application to keep track of the time even when the rest of the device is sleeping.

During standby, the external crystal oscillator keeps ticking while the rest of the device is idle. This allows the external crystal to start up quickly and with little power consumption. Even when the system is in prolonged standby mode, the primary oscillator and the asynchronous timer continue to run. For additional power savings, each peripheral’s clock can be individually disabled while in active and idle sleep modes. Atmel offers a free version of its QTouch library that may be used to add the functionality of capacitive touch buttons, sliders, and wheels to AVR microcontrollers.

The production uses high-density non-volatile memory technology from Atmel. The system’s program flash memory can be directly upgraded using the PDI. The application program can be downloaded to the device’s flash memory through any interface the boot loader supports. Even if the application flash part is being updated, the boot loader software can still operate in a true read-while-write manner on the boot flash section.

The AVR XMEGA series of powerful microcontrollers combine an 8/16-bit RISC CPU with in-system, self-programmable memory to provide an effective and affordable solution for many embedded applications. Any Atmel AVR XMEGA device can be used with software development tools, such as C compilers, macro assemblers, program debuggers, programmers, and evaluation kits.

Information on How the Relevant Software Operates

The CPU will start running code from location ‘0’ in the program space of the flash memory as soon as the power is restored. The program counter identifies the following instruction that needs to be fetched (PC). The program flow is provided by unconditional and conditional jump and call instructions that can address the whole address space. AVR instructions that use a 32-bit word format are pretty rare. PC is saved on the stack and utilized in a subroutine, interrupting calls as the return address.

The stack’s size is limited by the amount of memory available in the SRAM and the rate at which it is being used because it is a component of the general data SRAM. The position in the highest internal SRAM following a reset is known as the stack pointer (SP). I/O memory location Multiple stacks or stack regions can easily be implemented with read/write access to the SP. The AVR CPU’s five supported addressing modes simplify accessing the SRAM’s data.

Signpost Book

The status register stores the outcome of the most recent arithmetic or logic instruction (SREG). This information can be utilized to reroute the execution of the program to carry out conditional activities. According to the instruction set reference, the status register must be updated every time an ALU operation is performed. As a result, your code will be quicker and smaller because you won’t need to utilize the specialized compare instructions as frequently. The status register is not immediately saved or restored after a return from an interruption. To manage this, the software is necessary. The I/O memory section contains a link to the status register.

Stack and Stack pointer

The return address is briefly stored on the stack after an interrupt or a function call. Additionally, it is helpful for short-term information storage. The top element of the stack is always pointed to by the SP register, which keeps track of the stack’s location. This is implemented using two 8-bit registers in the I/O memory area. Data is added to and removed from the stack using the PUSH and POP instructions, respectively. The stack can grow by shifting its contents from a higher to a lower memory address. Accordingly, when data is placed into the stack, the SP drops, and when it is popped off, the SP increases. After a power cycle, the onboard SRAM’s highest address initializes the SP. If the SP is to be updated and set to an address larger than 0x2000, it must first be defined before any subroutine calls or interrupts can be enabled.

Whenever an interrupt or subroutine is called, the return address is automatically moved to the top of the stack. The length of the return address can range between two and three bytes, depending on how much program memory the device has. For devices with 128KB of program memory or less, the return address takes up two bytes of the device’s memory. The pointer to the stack is either decremented or incremented by two. In computing devices with a program memory capacity of more than 128 KB, the SP is decremented or increased by three because the return address is three bytes. The return address is pushed onto the stack when returning from an interrupt with the RETI instruction and popped off when returning from a subroutine call with the RET instruction.

Conclusion

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