The transmission and distribution of power comprise many stages and processes. An electrical substation is one of these stages. Are you planning to set up a substation or invest in one? We are going to cover all the essentials that you should know about electrical substations.
What is a Electrical substation?
A electrical substation is a place where power is distributed. It is an intermediate station between the source of electricity and the customer. The power at this station is controlled by a switchyard.
The substation also serves as an electric transmission and distribution network in the area. It serves as a point of contact between substations, feeders, and other electrical equipment. It also acts as a traffic hub for all electrical lines that are located in the area.
Electrical Substation’s function
The function of a substation includes:
Power transfer: Transferring electricity from one location to another; this is called “transmission”.
Distribution: The process of distributing electric power from the main grid to the customers.
Electrical Substation working principle
The working principle of a substation is as follows:
- The primary source of electricity is the power station.
- The power station transfers the generated electricity to the substation through transmission lines.
- The substation converts the electric energy into alternating current (AC) and distributes it to consumers through distribution lines.
- When you need electricity, you need to connect with your local electrical company and get connected with the distribution network or network operators to get your electricity supply from the substation or a nearby substation.
Electrical Substation’s components
The substation has the following components:
This is the collection of switches that control the flow of electric power at a substation. It is used to switch the power from one circuit to another. It also controls the voltage and frequency of power transmission.
This is also known as a “circuit breaker”. It is used to switch on or off individual circuits in the switchyard.
These are devices that convert voltages from one level to another, which are controlled by switches in a switchyard. Transformers are used to change high-voltage (HV) electricity into lower voltages (LV). They are also called “rectifiers”. Transformers are also used to change AC or DC voltage from one level to another.
This is a piece of material that is used to hold the conductor in position and insulate it from the surroundings. These are used in the transmission lines. Insulators are also known as “disconnects”.
This is also known as a “wire”. It is used to carry electrical current through the power line, which it travels through a transmission tower and then into a substation where it will be transmitted out of it into an area where it will be used.
This is also known as a “transformer house”. This is a high-rise structure that holds the power lines in place and also provides protection against severe weather conditions. It is also used to transmit electricity from one area to another.
This is an electrical switch that allows electricity to flow through a circuit when required and stops the flow of electricity when it is not needed. When there is no demand for electricity, the circuit breakers are “closed” and do not allow current to flow through them.
This is also known as “earth wire” or “ground wire”. It is a metal wire that is used to provide an electrical connection between different parts of the electrical system to the ground.
This is a metal tube that holds the electrical conductors in the air space and also protects them from fire and other elements.
A conduit is a metallic pipe used for carrying electricity from one part of an electrical system to another. The conduit carries the electricity from one area to another.
This battery is used to store the electricity generated by the generators and it is also used to charge the overhead lines.
This is a wire that carries electricity from one pole to another. It connects all the electrical devices in an area and also provides power to all the devices in that area.
The overhead lines are fixed wires which are strung between poles and are used for carrying electricity from one part of an electrical system to another.
The overhead wires in a system may be insulated or uninsulated depending on their purpose. The uninsulated overhead wires are generally referred to as “circuit” wires, while the insulated overhead wires are usually called “distribution” wires.
Types of electrical substations
Electrical substations are grouped into different categories based on their purpose or function. Let’s have a look at the main types:
A transmission substation is used for the distribution of electric energy. It is basically a large transformer house that manages to convert the alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) and vice versa as required. It usually contains transformers and switchgear.
A distribution substation is used for the delivery of electric energy from one point to another. The main purpose of this type of substation is to deliver power from a transmission line or feeder lines to different areas and houses, using either transformers or other devices like switches. It can convert the DC electric energy into AC or vice versa as required.
A control station is an electrical substation that handles the control and monitoring of the power supply of the distribution network. It is a computerized station that uses switches and other equipment to control the distribution network.
A collector substation is an electrical substation that is used to collect the electric energy from a distribution network. It is a large transformer house that manages to convert the alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) and vice versa as required. It usually contains transformers and switchgear.
A converter substation is an electrical substation that is primarily used for the conversion of voltage, current, and frequency of electric energy. The main purpose of this type of substation is to convert the AC power into DC power, or vice versa. It is basically a large transformer house that contains transformers and switches.
Choosing the location of a substation
Several factors have to be considered when choosing an ideal location for a substation.
First, you need to consider the size of the land available. The larger the land size, the more options you have. A large-size area has the capacity to accommodate all the essential components of an electrical substation.
Substation location should be in a place where it can be easily accessed by the maintenance team.
The location of a substation is also determined by the power transmission lines as well as distribution lines. The substation should be located close to the transmission lines so that it can supply electricity to the entire area.
The location of the substation should be well-ventilated. The airflow is important for the insulation of the substation and it also helps in the supply of fresh air to the crew.
Another important factor that you need to consider when choosing a location for a substation is its proximity to other substations. The closer to other substations, the more efficient your work becomes.
Is it safe to live near an electrical substation?
The location of a substation should not be close to residential areas or public institutions. The distance from residential areas or industrial zones should not exceed 500 meters from the location of your electrical substation.
In case you want to locate your electrical substation in a place where there are a lot of people, you should consider the following points:
The distance of a substation from residential areas and industrial zones should not exceed 500 meters.
On the other hand, living near an electrical substation is not very dangerous as you may assume. However, it is always advisable to know the safety features of the substation, and you should also be aware of the reasons why people may be afraid of living near an electrical substation.
Substation workers are not usually exposed to high levels of radiation because the devices generate very little heat, which is why there have been no recorded instances of people being affected by exposure to electromagnetic fields.
How to buy components of a substation?
Ensure that all the components match the needs of your substation. For example, if you are planning to build an electrical substation for a commercial building, it is essential that you buy the components of the substation from a reputable company.
The following are some of the features that you should look for when you are buying electrical substations.
– The substation electrical components manufacturer should offer warranties on their products, which is in case you have to repair or replace any damaged parts.
– The company should offer technical support and guidance whenever you need it. You can also ask them about the certification of their products so that you know exactly what kind of electrical equipment they use in their projects.
– You should consider buying electrical substations from companies that have a good reputation and have been in the business for a long time.
– The company should offer a variety of electrical substations that will suit your needs.
At ICRFQ, we supply different electrical substation components. We use the best quality materials and components in the manufacturing of our products. We also offer a variety of electrical substation components that are designed to meet your requirements.
We offer construction, design, and installation services for electrical substations. We not only supply you with electrical substations but we also provide you with a wide range of other electrical equipment such as switchgear and relays.
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