The electronic systems that we take for granted in our daily lives are made possible by the semiconductor components and substrates used to build them. There are many types of electronic components, but a beginner might know only a few of them. If you are just starting out or want to brush up on your knowledge about electronics, this list of basic electronic components can help.
Each component has its own unique function and characteristics. Understanding the different roles that these electronic parts play can help when working with circuit boards and other small building blocks for electronics projects.
- 1 Resistors
- 2 FAQs about resistors
- 3 Diodes
- 4 FAQs about diodes
- 5 Transistors
- 6 FAQs about transistors
- 7 Capacitors
- 8 FAQs about capacitors
- 9 Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
- 10 FAQs about LEDs
- 11 Inductors
- 12 FAQs about inductors
- 13 Integrated Circuit
- 14 FAQs about integrated circuits (ICs)
- 15 Fuses
- 16 FAQs about fuses
- 17 Circuit breakers
- 18 FAQ about circuit breakers
- 19 Switches
- 20 FAQ about switches
- 21 Relay
- 22 FAQs about relays
- 23 Transformer
- 24 FAQs about transformers
- 25 Batteries
- 26 FAQs about batteries
- 27 Electric Motor
- 28 FAQs about motors
- 29 Conclusion
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A resistor is a basic electronic component that is used to limit current and voltage flow. Resistors are made with ceramic, metal film, or wire-wound material. They can be used to protect circuits from getting fried or to adjust the current flow in a circuit.
Resistors can also be combined in series and parallel configurations to increase or decrease the overall resistance of a circuit.
FAQs about resistors
What would happen without resistors?
The resistance of the resistor limits the flow of electrons and helps to protect electrical components from overheating. Without resistors, a circuit would have no protection and could burn out or cause a fire.
How are resistors measured?
Resistor values are measured in ohms. The higher the ohm value, the greater amount of resistance there is.
What are resistors used for?
Resistors are commonly used to limit current flow. They can also be used to generate heat, create voltage drops, or act as a voltage divider.
What types of resistors exist?
There are three main types: wire wound resistors, metal film, and carbon film resistors. Each type has its own unique characteristics and may be better suited for different applications than others. For example, wire wound resistors have a high tolerance range and can handle higher temperatures than carbon film or metal film resistors.
Will a resistor reduce voltage?
Yes, a resistor will reduce voltage by dissipating the electrical energy as heat. A resistor only allows a certain amount of current to flow through it. This means that the voltage across the resistor will be less than the source voltage.
What is the difference between a resistor and a fuse?
Fuses are designed to protect the circuit from an overload condition. If too much current flows through a fuse, it will melt, opening up the circuit. However, a resistor is designed to dissipate electrical energy as heat.
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Diodes are semiconductor devices that only allow current to flow in one direction. They are used as rectifiers, voltage regulators, and signal isolators in circuits. Diodes may be constructed from germanium, silicon, or gallium arsenide materials.
A diode is marked by a stripe on its body at the cathode end of the device; this end of the diode will have a negative charge when it is connected to a positive voltage and will have a positive charge when connected to a negative voltage. Diodes typically come in glass-encased packages with metal leads for electrical connections.
FAQs about diodes
What are the 3 main uses of diodes?
Diodes are used for three main purposes,; converting AC to DC, isolating signals and mixing signals.
What types of diodes are available?
There are many types of diodes in the market. They include photodiodes, light emitting diodes, silicon signal diodes, power diodes, Schottky diode, zener diode,PN junction diode, laser diode among others.
What is the difference between a diode and a rectifier?
A rectifier is a type of diode that converts AC to DC current. A rectifier is used in many applications from powering radios and TVs to converting AC power from the power grid to DC power for use with batteries.
How do I choose the right diode for my application?
The first step in choosing a diode for your application is to consider what you will be using it for. Then you need to find out what kind of voltage it needs to handle, how much current it will be carrying, and how much heat it will have to dissipate.
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Transistors are semiconductor devices that amplify electrical signals by controlling the flow of current within an electronic circuit; they act as switches for electric signals and direct current (DC) power supply sources for other electronic devices and circuits.
A transistor may be constructed from silicon or germanium semiconductor materials with three legs: one base lead, one collector lead, and one emitter lead (the third leg is not always present).
FAQs about transistors
What are the uses of transistors?
Transistors are commonly used in computer memory chips. They are used in most electronic devices that have some form of memory. These include cameras, MP3 players, digital watches, and remote controls.
What are the advantages of transistors?
Transistors have a number of advantages. They can be easily manufactured in a large range of sizes and shapes, they can be fabricated using simple processes, they are very reliable, they are very sensitive to heat, and they have high switching speeds.
What is the difference between bipolar and field effect transistors?
Bipolar transistors use two PN junctions to amplify electrical signals; field effect transistors (FETs) use one PN junction to amplify signals but do so in an entirely different way. FETs are more efficient and have a much higher input impedance than bipolar transistors.
What is the difference between a bipolar transistor and a field effect transistor?
The two types of transistors are polarised in the same way, but FETs use one PN junction to amplify signals. Bipolar transistors have a base, collector, and emitter; FETs have a gate, collector, and emitter.
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Capacitors are electronic components used to store electric charge and prevent the flow of current. They can also be used to change the voltage or current of an electronic circuit. A capacitor is made up of two conductive plates separated by an insulator, usually a dielectric material such as paper or plastic.
The plates are constructed so that the electric field between them creates a potential difference between them.
The area between the plates is called a capacitor plate, and it works much like a battery in that it stores energy until it is needed. Capacitors typically have two terminals or leads one positive (anode) terminal and one negative (cathode) terminal.
FAQs about capacitors
What is the difference between a capacitor and a condenser?
A condenser is used to change voltage, while capacitors are used to store charge.
What are the types of capacitors?
There are four main types of capacitors: electrolytic capacitors, ceramic capacitors, film capacitors, and tantalum capacitors; each has its own characteristic properties and uses in electronics.
How are capacitors rated?
Capacitors are rated in terms of their capacitance or voltage rating. The capacitance is the measure of their ability to store energy, while the voltage rating is how much energy they can deliver.
What is a capacitor’s operating temperature range?
The operating temperature range for capacitors is -55 degrees Celsius to +150 degrees Celsius.
What are the main uses of capacitors?
Capacitors are used in many applications, including filters, low-pass filters, high-pass filters, transient suppressors, and surge suppressors. They are also used in circuits that need to hold a charge or store energy such as power supplies and computer memory devices. They are also used in electrical control circuits that regulate the flow of electricity.
What should I look for when buying capacitors?
When buying capacitors, you should pay attention to the capacitance. The capacitance of a capacitor is the amount of charge it can store and how much energy it can deliver. When buying capacitors, look for ones that meet your needs and are rated for your application.
Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
Image source Pixabay
LEDs are also popular and essential electronic components in the modern world. They are used in a wide variety of applications, from lighting to telecommunications. They are also used in almost all the electronic devices that you see around.
One outstanding feature of LEDs is reliability. They are designed to work for a long period without breaking down.
LEDs are also popular among hobbyists who like to make flashing lights and decorative lights for their homes.
FAQs about LEDs
What should I look for when buying LEDs?
When looking at LEDs, you should pay attention to the color of the light they produce. LEDs come in various colors, and some are more visible than others. To find the most visible color, it is best to look at different LED models and compare them with each other.
You should also check out the current rating and the voltage of the LED that you want to buy.
The size and dimension of the LED will also matter.
Do LED bulbs save money?
Yes, you will be able to save a significant amount of money if you choose to use LED lights. This is mainly because they don’t require high input current yet they are still able to output high lumens.
What does L70 rating mean in LED lights?
L70 rating is a measure of the light output of an LED bulb. The rating is measured in lumens. The higher the L70 rating, the more light output you will get from your LED bulb.
How long do LEDs last?
There are various models that last for up to 25,000 hours without any signs of failure. This means that they will serve you for a very long time before they start to fail on you.
If you are looking at using LEDs in your home or office, then it is best to look at their life expectancy and make sure that they will last long enough for you to use them.
Are there any safety issues with LEDs?
LEDs are not as dangerous as other types of bulbs because they only produce heat instead of flame and light emission like other bulbs do. This makes it so much safer to use them than other types of bulbs out there and this is what makes them popular among people who have toddlers or kids at home or in their offices.
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Inductors are used in power supplies, lighting and many other places where we need to store energy in the form of the magnetic field. It is a coil of wire with magnetic material inside it. A simple inductor can be made by winding several turns of wire on a bobbin, but this is not very practical as it would be difficult to wind large coils and unwind small ones.
Most people view inductors as complex versions of transistors. They are quite a common feature on most complex electric devices.
FAQs about inductors
What is the main purpose of an inductor?
One of the key functions of inductors is to store electrical energy in the form of magnetic energy. The store energy will, later on, be used for other different purposes.
Another function is to build electromotive force. This is the energy that gets produced when electric current passes through a coil.
What is the difference between an inductor and a transistor?
Transistors are used as amplifiers for electronic circuits and as switching devices for control circuits. Inductors are mainly used for storing energy in electric fields (for later use). Transistors are normally smaller than inductors, so they can be packed together easily in small areas of electronic circuits.
How are inductors rated?
Inductors are rated in terms of the maximum inductance they can store. Inductors are rated by their values in microhenries (μH) or millihenries (mH). The unit of measurement for inductance is the Henry, which is named after the British scientist Henry Cavendish.
How does an inductor store energy?
Inductors use magnetic fields to store energy. This field is created when electric current flows in the coil. When electric current flows through the coil, it creates a magnetic field. As the current flow through the coils, it creates a strong magnetic field. This is where the electric energy is stored.
What are the types of inductor?
The most common types of inductors include iron core inductors, ferrite inductors, iron powder inductors, air core inductors, and Ferite core inductors. Each type comes with a unique set of features and specifications.
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This is another electronic component that you ought to know. An integrated circuit is simply a circuit board that contains many electronic components. Some of these components include resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, and so on. These components are used to create a circuit that can operate at a higher level than a single component could.
An integrated circuit is made up of many tiny parts called semiconductors (or transistors). Each transistor has an electrical property that makes it able to make connections with other transistors in order to complete the circuit’s task.
FAQs about integrated circuits (ICs)
What is integrated circuit examples?
Examples of integrated circuits include microcontrollers, microprocessors, and memory chips.
What are integrated circuits used for?
Integrated circuits are used to create computers, calculators, and other electronic devices. They are also used in the telecommunications industry to transfer information.
How are integrated circuits made?
Integrated circuits are made by a process called ‘integration’. The integrated circuit is built up by inserting different electronic components such as transistors into a larger piece of silicon (called a substrate).
How big are integrated circuits?
Integrated circuits are usually less than one inch (2.54cm) across and can be as small as 0.0005 inches (0.01mm).
Why do we need integrated circuits?
The main advantage of ICs is they make it possible to miniaturize electric components. This means that a single integrated circuit can perform the function of an otherwise large electronic component.
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Fuses are usually rated among the must-have devices for any circuit. The main function of a fuse is to protect the circuit by cutting it off when there is a short circuit or overload.
A typical fuse comprises a thin wire which will get hot and break off when there is a current overload.
There are different types and designs of fuses. Your choice will depend on the application.
FAQs about fuses
How do fuses work?
Fuses protect circuits by cutting the flow of current in a circuit if there is a short circuit or overload. When the current (electricity) flows through a fuse, it is divided into two parts: one to protect the circuit and the other part to blow up if there is an overload.
How are fuses used?
You will connect fuses at the terminals where the device is connected to the power source.
Fuses are used in many different types of devices such as transformers, electrical motors, switch mode power supplies, and lighting circuits. Fuses are also found in electronic equipment such as computers, printers, microwaves, and TV sets.
Fuses are also often used in industrial applications such as air conditioning systems and water heating systems.
What are the types of fuse?
The most common types include resettable fuse, One-time-only fuse, current limiting, and non-current limiting fuse. From the names, you can tell that each type has a unique feature and is used in special applications. For example, you will always have to replace a one-time-only fuse after it has blown off.
How are fuses rated?
Fuses are rated for the maximum current it can carry. The rating usually does not include a time factor. Therefore, you will only have to replace a fuse after it has blown off.
However, for some, you will only have to reset the fuse after it has cut off the connection.
What if I use a smaller fuse?
Well, you will have to deal with constant blowouts. This will happen because the current will always be too high for the fuse. In fact, it will be difficult to even work with that fuse on your circuit.
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We can describe a circuit breaker as a close relative to the fuse. This is because they literally perform the same function. A circuit breaker is a device that protects the circuit from overloading.
The function of a circuit breaker is achieved by closing the current flow when the circuit gets too hot. Therefore, it shuts down to prevent the damage caused by overheating.
Circuit breakers are rated for the maximum current that passes through them. Once the circuit breaker has tripped, you will have to go and reset it back to its normal position so that the current can flow through.
FAQ about circuit breakers
What is the rated current of a circuit breaker?
The current rating of a circuit breaker is determined by the size of the current that passes through it. temperature is also considered when in the process of defining the rated current of the breaker.
What is a circuit breaker’s life span?
The life span of a circuit breaker depends on how well you maintain it. If you have maintained it properly and regularly, then you can expect your circuit breakers to last for about 20 years. This is true for most types of fuses as well.
How do I install a circuit breaker in a panel box?
You only need a few basic tools such as a screwdriver and the basic knowledge of electrical wiring.
When installing a circuit breaker, you must first consult the manufacturer’s instructions. Once you have the correct wiring diagram, then follow the directions on how to install a circuit breaker.
Can I replace a circuit breaker myself?
After your circuit breaker has blown off, you will have to replace it. The good news is it is easy to replace one. Just follow the instructions as given by the manufacturer.
However, if you are not sure about matters related to electronics, it will be wise to hire a professional electrician to do the job.
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This is a simple and common electronic component that you know. Its work is to open and close the circuit when needed.
Of course, it uses the “on” and “off” mechanisms to determine what should happen on the circuit, whether it is opening or closing.
The different types of switch in the market include single pole single throw (SPST), single pole double throw (SPDT), and double pole single throw (DPST).
FAQ about switches
How does a switch work?
The switch is made up of two parts: a gate and a coil. When the circuit is on, both gate and coil are in contact with each other, thus allowing current to pass through them. When the circuit is off, the gate remains disconnected from the coil while the coil remains connected to it.
This causes current to be blocked from flowing through them, thus turning off the circuit.
Which type of switch should I buy?
The type depends on the nature of your application, or simply the type and nature of your circuit. Consult with your electrician to be sure which type is suitable for you.
What should I consider when buying a switch?
The very first factor to consider is the type. We have just listed various types of switches. Another factor to consider is the current and voltage rating of the switch. Some are suitable for more current and others are not. You should also consider the safety factor associated with a particular switch.
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A relay is a special type of electromechanical switch that is designed to operate in the presence of a magnetic field. It is commonly used to control the flow of electricity through a circuit.
A typical relay comprises of an electromagnet, spring, and armature.
Instead of electric current, it relays the magnetic connections which will eventually control the flow of current in the circuit.
Relays are commonly used in automation and control systems. They are also used in home appliances, industrial applications, and medical equipment.
Relays have a built-in safety feature that prevents the circuit from being energized unless the relay is in the position of ‘on’ or ‘off’.
FAQs about relays
What is the purpose for a relay?
A relay is a switch that can control the flow of current in a circuit. The purpose of a relay is to allow a user to manually control the flow of current and to prevent the switch from being turned off until the user wants it to be.
Why do I need a relay?
A relay is used when you want an automatic switch that does not require manual control, or for an electromechanical switch that has special requirements.
What are some applications for relays?
Relays are used in automation and control systems, home appliances, industrial applications, medical equipment, and more.
What are some types of relays?
There are different types of relays in the market. The most common ones include coaxial relay, contactor relay, latching relay, force-guided relay, and machine tool relay. Each type of relay is designed to meet specific application needs.
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A transformer is an electronic component that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by electromagnetic induction. It is a nonlinear, passive two-port network that transfers energy from one circuit to another without moving a net charge.
A transformer can either increase the voltage(stepping up) or reduce the voltage(stepping down) from one circuit to another.
That means that if you want to raise the voltage, you will use a step-up transformer. The reverse is true for a step-down transformer.
Transformers come in both large and small sizes. The size will depend on their application areas. For example, some transformers are used in major power lines while others are for small devices.
FAQs about transformers
How does a transformer work?
The working mechanism of a transformer is pretty simple. A transformer works by using magnetism. It consists of two coils of wire that are separated by an insulating material called a core.
A voltage is induced in the first coil when a current is sent through it. This voltage is proportional to the number of turns in the first coil and its permeability. The amount of current that flows through the second coil will be proportional to the voltage induced in it and its number of turns
What are the different types of transformers?
There are three general types of transformers: autotransformers, power transformers and step-up/down transformers.
The difference between them lies in their use and how they’re designed to work. For example an autotransformer doesn’t use any other source for its energy but itself, while a step-up/down transformer uses another source to boost or reduce its output voltage.
How do you choose a transformer?
The most important thing when choosing a transformer is your application’s requirements. You should consider factors like your power needs, currents, voltages, weight, size and so on before making your choice.
Also, keep in mind that different types have different designs and performance levels so try to get exactly what you need for your project or device.
Does a transformer convert AC to DC?
Np that is not the work of a transformer. Its core function is to step down or step down the voltage. This means that it changes the source voltage to a different, lower voltage. However it’s not able to change the current, which remains the same.
How do you use a transformer in your home?
Transformers are used in many devices and appliances in your home, especially those that need high currents and voltages like vacuum cleaners, cookers, and other high-consumption devices. They are also used quite often for lighting because they have such high power output.
Why oil is used in transformers?
Oil is used in transformers because it helps to cool the coils and prevent overheating, which can cause damage to the device. It also helps to increase efficiency and prolong the lifespan of the transformer.
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Batteries are electrical devices that store electrical energy and produce a potential difference between their terminals. The chemicals in the battery produce the electrical energy that flows through the circuit.
The two main types of batteries are primary, where the chemical reaction is not reversible, and secondary, where it is. Batteries are used in many applications including flashlights and cell phones.
FAQs about batteries
What do batteries have to do with electricity?
Batteries store electrical power for later use and release it when needed. They are used in many different kinds of applications from flashlights to remote controls.
What’s the difference between a primary battery and a secondary battery?
Primary batteries are not rechargeable because their chemical reactions are not reversible, so they must be replaced when they run out of power. Secondary batteries can be recharged by reversing their chemical reactions with an external source of electricity like a generator or solar panel so they can be used repeatedly before they need to be replaced.
How long do batteries last?
The lifespan of a battery depends on how much it’s been used, but also what kind it is and how well you take care of it.
You should always keep your device turned off when you’re not using it because this conserves power for later use when you may need it most. Also, keep your device away from heat sources which can damage its circuitry and reduce its performance over time as well as decrease its lifespan significantly.
How do I know if my battery needs replacing?
If your device is not holding a charge for as long as it used to, or if you are having trouble turning it on, it might be time to consider replacing the battery.
The first step in doing this is to charge the existing battery and see how long it takes. If you still don’t get enough power from the existing battery after charging it, then you should replace it with a new one.
Ensure that the newly replaced battery bis compatible with your device.
How do I test my batteries to determine if they need replacing?
You can test your batteries by using a multi-meter, which measures voltage and current in order to determine how much power they have left.
First, remove the negative terminal on your device (the side without any metal prongs) using a screwdriver or coin. Then connect the positive terminal of your multi-meter to that negative terminal and keep an eye on the voltage reading.
If it drops below 1V/cell, then that means that there is not enough juice left in those batteries for them to be useful anymore and you should replace them with new ones right away.
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A motor is an electrical component designed for converting electrical energy to mechanical energy. A typical motor is made up of a shaft, a casing, a rotor and a stator. The shaft is the part of the motor that connects to whatever you want to move.
The casing houses the electrical components and protects them from outside damage. The rotor is what rotates inside the casing and it consists of magnets that interact with the stator to produce torque.
The stator is made up of permanent magnets that generate magnetic fields which interact with those in the rotor to produce torque.
The most common motors are three-phase AC induction motors, which rely on an external power source to run while all other types are self-powered (batteries, friction or pressure).
FAQs about motors
How do I test my motor?
There are two basic ways to test your motor. You can either use a multimeter to test the voltage and current going into the motor or you can use a voltmeter.
If you want to test the voltage and current, you need to connect a multimeter across the terminals of the motor, which is connected to your power source. If you want to use a voltmeter, then connect it across the terminals of the motor with a wire.
How do I know if my motor is good?
Here are some general signs you might have that your motor is bad:
– The rotor turns backwards or doesn’t rotate at all
– The stator doesn’t turn at all (usually this means that there’s something wrong with your battery)
– The rotor spins but it’s not possible for it to spin fast enough for any meaningful output (if this happens then replace your battery)
– There’s no rotation at all (this means that something else is wrong) If these signs are present, then it’s time to replace your motor.
What are some performance parameters of a motor?
Common performance parameters of electric motors include: torque, continuous torque density, and power density. Torque refers to the amount of force that a motor can apply. Continuous torque density is a measurement of how much force the motor can exert over an extended period of time. Power density is a measurement of the amount of power that a motor can deliver over an extended period of time.
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