TPS546D24ARVFR

TPS546D24ARVFR

Part Number: TPS546D24ARVFR

Manufacturer: Texas Instruments

Description: 40A DC/DC CONTROLLER WITH PMBUS

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TPS546D24ARVFR Description

This non-isolated DC/DC converter, model number TPS546D24A, features a high level of integration. It is a tiny 7 mm x 5 mm size, but it can run at high frequencies and throw out 40 A of current. It is possible to interconnect two, three, or even four TPS546D24A devices to provide up to 160 A on a single output. The VDD5 pin allows the user to overdrive the internal 5-V LDO with an external 5-V supply, thereby increasing the converter’s efficiency and reducing wasted power.

The TPS546D24A employs a unique input feedforward and tunable internal compensation current-mode control fixed in frequency. Because of this, we can keep the size of the components small while still guaranteeing stability over a broad range of output capacitances.

The PMBus interface provides an easy and standardized digital interface for configuring the converter and monitoring crucial parameters such as the output voltage, output current, and internal die temperature. This interface also includes a capability for a clock frequency of 1 MHz. The response to fault circumstances can be set to restart, switch off, or ignore according to the system’s requirements. All TPS546D24ARVFR converters supplying a single output rail can share a single address via back-channel communication between stacked devices, making it easier to develop system software and firmware. To allow program-free power-up, critical parameters like output voltage, switching frequency,  soft-start time, and overcurrent fault limits can be set through BOM selection rather than through PMBus communication.

TPS546D24ARVFR Features

  • 95-V to 16-V PVIN and 2.95-V to 18-V AVIN for split rail support (4-VIN VDD5 for switching)
  • 5-m/0.9-m integrated MOSFETs
  • Control of the average current mode with internal compensation that is chosen
  • With current sharing up to 160 A and support for a single address per output, the 2, 3, and 4 stacked
  • Choose between a pin strap output of 0.5 to 5.5 volts or a PMBus VOUT COMMAND output of 0.25 to 5.5 volts.
  • Differential remote sensing for 1% VOUT error, -40°C to +150°C TJ AVS, and margining capabilities with PMBus MSEL pins pin programming defaults for PMBus
  • 12 switchable frequencies between 225 kHz and 1.5 MHz (8 pin-strap options)
  • Prebiased output is supported by frequency sync in and out.
  • Strong coupled inductor support

Detailed Description

Overview

Control of the TPS546D24A is provided by a current mode that uses a patented preset frequency. Pin-strapping and PMBus programming can choose a switching frequency from a range of possible values. Error amplification is accomplished by creating a true differential remote sense amplifier by dividing the output voltage by an internal resistor and then comparing this to a voltage reference. This process is repeated until the desired amount of error is amplified. An internal oscillator is responsible for turning on the power switch on the high side. A buffer and VSHARE protocol shares the error amplifier output when multiple devices are stacked.

This standard voltage drives an input voltage, an output voltage, and a switching frequency feedforward linear voltage ramp modulator so that an average switch-node current can be controlled. Also driven by this voltage is the output voltage. Continuous conduction mode (CCM) is the operating mode the device utilizes across its load range when it generally functions as a synchronous buck converter. The TPS546D24A devices have compensation components built in, with user-selectable default values determined by the switching frequency and output LC filters. These values are programmable via the PMBus command (B1h) USER DATA 01 (COMPENSATION CONFIG) via the external pin MSEL1, and the switching frequency and output LC filters determine the default values.

Feature Description

● Average Current-Mode Control

The TPS546D24A is controlled by an average current mode with current error integration and voltage error integration loops that can be set individually. This architecture gives peak current-mode-like performance without limiting the minimum on-time or off-time control. The gain selection of the current loop effectively establishes the slope correction. Customers can benefit greatly from the TPS546x24A Compensation and Pin-Strap Resistor Calculator, a helpful design tool.

● On-Time Modulator

To simplify the design of the current error integration loop, a voltage feedforward modulator is used at the input, ILerr, to convert the integrated current error signal into an inductor ontime that maintains a constant volt-second balance across the inductor during each switching period.

● Loop Slave Detection

The GOSNS/SLAVE pin’s voltage is set at boot time. As soon as a high current is drawn from BP1V5, the device is identified as a loop-enslaved person. When the GOSNS/SLAVE pin is connected to the Output Ground, the TPS546D24A is set up as a loop master.

● Current Sensing and Sharing

Using a SenseFET design in both the high-side and low-side FET makes accurate and temperature-compensated current monitoring possible. The SenseFET design uses the parasitic resistance of the FETs to achieve lossless current sensing. Through the VSHARE pin, many (2, 3, or 4) devices in a multi-phase application can share the same internal control voltage.

The measured current in each phase is controlled by the VSHARE voltage utilizing an internal transconductance amplifier to provide loop compensation and current balancing across different stages. The amplifier’s output voltage is compared to an internal PWM ramp to produce the PWM pulse.

● Telemetry

The controller core can directly measure the die temperature, input voltage, output voltage, output current, and telemetry sub-system. For precise measurements of these essential system characteristics, the ADC offers internal rolling windows averaging up to 16 previous measurements with rolling windows.

Each ADC conversion takes less than 500 s, providing a 2 ms update for each telemetry value. Suppose the inductor current is non-linear during the low-side FET on time, such as when the inductor is operating above its saturation current. In that case, the current sense telemetry, which measures the low-side FET current at the beginning and end of each low-side FET on time and averages the two measurements, will overreport the average inductor current.

● Overcurrent Protection

Protection against overcurrent (OC) on the low side and short circuits on the high side are both built-in. High-side pulses are terminated cycle-by-cycle if the peak current through the high-side MOSFET exceeds 1.5 of the programmed low-side threshold. The low-side overcurrent fault and warning thresholds are programmed via PMBus and sensed across average current through the low-side MOSFET and compared to the set warning or fault threshold.

Conclusion

The TPS546D24A components can run on two independently supplied voltages. AVIN supports a range of 2.95 V to 18 V. AVIN must be switched on to use POR, communicate via PMBus, or convert output. To switch on AVIN voltages lower than 4 V, an input voltage of more than 4 V must be given to VDD5. The input voltage range for PVIN is 2.95 V to 16 V.

However, POR and PMBus communication do not require a powered PVIN, only switching. Connecting AVIN to PVIN may power the TPS546D24A from a single source voltage of 4 V or more. For less switching noise on AVIN, TI suggests placing a 10- resistor between AVIN and PVIN.

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