ATxmega16D4-AU

ATxmega16D4-AU

Part Number: ATxmega16D4-AU

Manufacturer: Microchip Technology / Atmel

Description: IC MCU 8/16BIT 16KB FLASH 44TQFP

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ATxmega16D4-AU Description

Low-power, high-performance microcontrollers like the AVR XMEGA AU family are available. CMOS 8/16-bit microcontrollers based on the AVR-enhanced RISC architecture. System designers can strike a good compromise between power consumption and processing speed with Atmel AVR XMEGA AU devices, which can process nearly a million MIPS (instructions per second) for every megahertz (MHz).

The AVR central processing unit has a powerful instruction set and 32 general-purpose working registers. Each of the 32 registers is directly connected to the ALU, allowing two records to be accessed in a single instruction and a single clock cycle. The resulting architecture achieves exponentially faster throughputs and is significantly more code-efficient than CISC-based microcontrollers or traditional single-accumulator. The above qualities are all present in Atmel AVR XMEGA AU devices. One high-speed USB 2.0 port; up to eight Universal synchronous, asynchronous receiver/transmitter (USART) ports; four I2 C and SMBUS-compatible two-wire serial interfaces (TWIs); internal programmable flash; internal SRAM and EEPROM; Controller with four DMA channels and an event system with eight channels.

The PDI, or program and debug interface, is a two-pin connector used for development and inspection. Some gadgets feature an IEEE 1149.1-compliant JTAG interface for on-chip debugging and reprogramming. Atmel AVR XMEGA devices have five different power-saving modes that can be selected in the software. SRAM, the DMA controller, the interrupt controller, the event system, and all other components, including the RAM and hard drive, keep working even with the CPU turned off. The contents of the SRAM and registers are preserved in the power-down state, but all other operations are disabled until the next TWI, USB resume, pin-change interrupt, or reset. This is a reliable way for the app to keep track of a timer base because it is an asynchronous real-time counter, which continues to operate even when the rest of the device is in power-saving mode. Inactive states do not affect the external crystal oscillator’s ability to generate a steady frequency.

The low power consumption allows for a lightning-fast start-up of the external crystal. During long standby periods, the system’s main oscillator and asynchronous timer keep ticking away. When not in use, peripheral clocks consume less power by stopping ticking. Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory is used in the devices’ construction. With both the Program/Data Interface (PDI) and the JTAG (Joint Test Action Group), it is possible to reprogram program flash memory even while it is being used. A boot loader can use any available interface to transfer the app’s code from the device’s memory flash to the flash drive.

A boot loader program stored in the boot flash, which keeps running even as the application flash section is updated, is fully compatible with read-while-writing. The Atmel AVR XMEGA microcontroller family is an efficient and versatile option for a wide variety of embedded applications due to its combination of an 8/16-bit RISC CPU and in-system, self-programmable flash. Several development tools work with Atmel AVR XMEGA AU devices, including C compilers, macro assemblers, program debuggers/simulators, programmers, and evaluation kits.

ATxmega16D4-AU Features

  • Atmel AVR RISC processor, which is both powerful and 8/16-bit.
  • There are 142 steps to follow.
  • The modular hardware increases output.
  • A total of 32 8-bit registers are wired straight to the ALU.
  • Keep a stack in random access memory.
  • The stack’s pointer can be accessed in the I/O address space.
  • Allows for the direct access of up to 16MB of RAM (both program and data).
  • Full support for 16/24 bits in I/O registers.
  • Powerful 8-, 16-, and 32-bit arithmetic support.
  • Safeguarding mission-critical system components from configuration changes.

ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit

The ALU allows you to perform logical and arithmetic operations between registers or between a constant and a record. Processes involving only one register are possible as well. All 32 general-purpose registers are wired directly to the ALU, allowing it to function. The result of an arithmetic operation performed between two general-purpose registers or between a record and an immediate is written to the register file in a single clock cycle. The status register is updated to reflect the outcome of an arithmetic or logical operation. The functions of an ALU can be broken down into three broad classes: arithmetic, logic, and bit operations. The instruction set facilitates efficient implementation of 32-bit arithmetic and supports 8- and 16-bit arithmetic. Signed and unsigned multiplication and fractional formats are all supported by the underlying hardware multiplier.

Program Flow

Once the power is restored, the central processing unit (CPU) will begin executing code from location ‘0’ in the flash program memory. The next instruction to be fetched is indicated by the program counter (PC). Instructions that can conditionally or unconditionally jump to a different location or make a call can be used to control the flow of the program. It can access any address in the program’s The word format used by the vast majority of AVR instructions is 16 bits, while only a tiny subset uses 32 bits. The stack is responsible for holding the return address PC during interrupts and calls to subroutines. Allocating the stack in the general data SRAM means that the stack size is constrained only by the total SRAM size and the amount of accessible SRAM. The highest address in the device’s internal SRAM is where the SP will start after a reset. Having the SP available for reading and writing in the I/O memory space makes it simple to implement multiple stacks or stack regions. Since the AVR CPU supports five distinct addressing modes, data stored in the SRAM is easily accessible.

Memories

● Flash Program Memory

In the event of a power failure, the CPU will resume operation by reading and executing instructions from the beginning of the flash program memory. The program counter is a mechanism for determining the next instruction that must be fetched (PC). Any address in the program’s memory can be accessed by conditionally or unconditionally jumping to a different location or making a call, which can be used to control the flow of the program. Most AVR instructions use a 16-bit word format, while a select few use a 32-bit format.

When an interrupt or a subroutine call occurs, the stack must temporarily store the PC’s return address. If the stack is allocated in the general data SRAM, the only limits on its size are the total size of the SRAM and the amount of accessible SRAM. After a reset, the SP will begin at the highest address in the device’s internal SRAM. Implementing multiple stacks or stack regions is easy when the SP is readable and writable in the I/O memory space. The AVR CPU supports five different addressing modes, making accessing information stored in the SRAM simple.

Conclusion

The AVR XMEGA microcontroller is a high-performance, low-power 8/16-bit device with features like a four-channel event system, a programmable multi-level interrupt controller, 1KB EEPROM, 2KB SRAM, a 16-bit real-time counter, four flexible 16-bit timer/counters with compare modes and PWM, a 16-bit real-time counter, a 16-bit real-time counter, a 16-bit real-time The PDI’s two pins enable quick programming and bug fixes. The device balances power consumption and processing speed by completing complicated instructions in a single clock cycle.

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